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Geography and Economic Growth financial growth

by Dragonspear

If you look at the African continent, perhaps the first word to come to mind is “enormous.” And that’s true. You could fit most of the United States, China, India, and a lot of Europe, into Africa. But if you compare Africa to Europe, Europe has two to three times the length of coastline that Africa has.

But what does coastline length have to do with anything?

Well, coasts mean access to water.

As benign as water might seem, it’s a major driver of economic growth. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, argued that access to water reduced the cost of trade, and gave merchants access to larger markets. These larger markets incentivized specialization and innovation.

These twin processes ultimately spurred trade activity, and consequently, economic growth.

As an end result, civilization tended to grow wherever trade was easiest.

If you want proof of this, think of a few major cities.

Look at Istanbul, New York, Venice, Hong Kong, London, and similar areas. What do they all have in common? They all sit near a major coast or a major river. In contrast, look at some of the poorest areas in the world—places like Kampala, or Pointe-Noire. These places are all landlocked. Since goods are easier to transport over water than over land, trade in landlocked areas is more expensive.

And what happens when trade is more expensive?

It becomes harder to spark economic growth.

What this all means is economic growth is not only affected by a country’s rules and institutions, but by a country’s natural blessings, or natural hindrances, too. The effects of geography on growth cannot be discounted.

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adil doloo 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

How's Africa landlocked when I live in the city of Tanzania that clearly has access to the Indian ocean? We have Zanzibar that's an island itself and most of you Americans and Europeans flock to Africa for trade and natural resources. We have the biggest river, Nile. Did you do your research well? A few landlocked countries do not represent the entire Africa!

tetea puia 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

I can't appreciated the vedio! If landlock is the main factor, why not Russia and South America?

HARSH M 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Incorrect maps of India is used in the video, highly offended. About 10% of the country's geography is not shown. Please use correct maps in future videos

Carl Yves Ayco 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng


Desiree Jusino 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

This doesn’t really tell me what I was hoping for ,(sigh)

Lion Rulesx 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Who is here cause of,school social studies

DIY crafts with Julie! 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

I like the edits!

bad 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Who’s here from school science homework?

Sumaiya. A 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng


Eddie Travers 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Anyone here from online science class

gemini the best 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

First comment

Charles Feng 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

1:29 You accidentally put Taiwan into China

David Rubio 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

https://youtu.be/B8z6XS2jieE?t=116 "been landlock is like a national tariff, a tax on trade. And if natural tariffs are bad for growth, then perhaps tariffs created by governments aren't that great for growth either."
So many wrong things in that statement aside of the passive aggressivity:

First, to show how bad is been landlocked you are comparing it with tariffs, assuming that everybody agrees that they are bad for the economy. But then you immediately use that comparison to hint that tariffs are bad, assuming that everybody agrees that been landlocked is bad (at this point in the video you are supposed to be summing up the whole video).

And secondly the comparison is far from perfect. Trading as a landlocked country is more expensive, as it would be with a tariff; but in the case of tariffs the government gets more income. So tariffs are way better than been landlocked.

abhijeet vasishtha 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Please! make a series on 'Independent India Economic History'. Highly Demanded!!

Bence Hamvai 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

What is the classical music at the beginning?

JaidynSimpson 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Thank you so much I still dnt understand xo

Hisham El-Garf 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

What about Switzerland? Landlocked and 40% higher than USA in GDP per capita

Chef Cinco 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

2:15 Did You Just Say..? Actually Never Mind

John Bautista 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Thanks you're a great help

PrideDefiler 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

0:38 – It almost feels like you omitted Korea on purpose? I mean it's a very wealthy and one of the top 10 trading nations in the World.
Why couldn't you just say East Asia?

Michael Kummer 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Tariffs, natural tax on trade… TAX, as the enemy… Enemy number 1… What happens to the importance of institutions..

[M]oon[W]olf 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Usury is the root of all evil and leads to a growth compulsion. The cancer of the world.
A crime against humanity! Back to the roots. Arsonists playing firefighters.

Georgia Guidestones: "Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature."
"Be not a cancer on the earth — leave room for nature — leave room for nature"
"A total world population of 250-300 million people, a 95% decline from present levels, would be ideal."
-CNN Founder Ted Turner

"Growth for the sake of growth is the ideology of the cancer cell." -Edward Abbey
No growth for the sake of growth, but for the debt and the greed of profit.

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lolipedofin 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Natural tariffs are wasted, government tariffs are collected and spent on actual things. Of course this doesn't mean heavy tariffs are bad, protectionism and mercantilism are outdated economic policy. I'm not a wonk in this issue, but I'm pretty sure tariffs are still a usable tool in stabilizing the market as well as a form of revenue for the government.

moonchild10210 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

This video is inaccurate and short-sighted. Water access doesn't translate to innovation, what does create "innovation" is supply and demand, destabilization of competing markets, propaganda, war, corruption, and imperialism.

Jorge Joaquin Puente Novell 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Clearly the geographic conditions are a factor of development, but it is not so determining as institutions and the fact that those countries where colonized and weren't allowed to look for their own economy. As stated by Acemoglu and Robinson, democracy is a turning point for growth and development.

Len S 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

How about foreign policy and military dominance, that has dictated the success and exploitation of failing nations on the receiving end, that have syphoned the resources of once great nations for the benefit of nations capitalising on them. Africa could be great with its natural resources if not for the might of corporations and corruption.

UnbeatabiL 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Wrong size of Russia at 1:29

αrcтιѕ 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

If that guy in Africa's poor, how is he wearing a tuxedo?

Kim Loan Le 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

phim ma

m H 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Africa has many long and large rivers and bodies of water to transport anything. But once again the label of poverty without a definition thereby promoting and sustaining the propaganda of Africa as a poor place. If Africa is indeed poor then why is Europe fixed on disrupting the stability of the continent by wanting to control the affairs and resources? Africa apparently has more than "poverty". Europe and America are in love with Africa's riches and love to call the continent "poor" it hides their intentions and keeps people away from discovering their evil deeds.

Law19157 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

I'm willing to bet that if a land locked African Country did a better job with it's rule of law and established a sales tax only tax code, the sales tax being around 15% to 20% & 10% for exports, along with Free Trade and no Tariffs they would see a major boost to their economic growth. What Corporation wouldn't want to be in a country with zero corporate taxes? and what rich person wouldn't want to retire in a zero income tax country? but that's entirely up to their rule of law, these nations tend to be in constant state of conflict with bribery being an epidemic, otherwise this economic model would give them an edge against their global competition.

MarceloCG 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

In this case, why the countries in the coast of Africa don't prosper?

Sara Romaniega 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Hi, I wonder when you are going to upload new videos of Principles of Macroeconomics, they are fantastic, but there are few videos. Thanks

zinxin 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

What would you say is the clearest case of an exception to this rule?

Send A Raven 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Sounds like something Jared Diamond would proclaim.

Alfred M 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Not sure if Africa is the best example you could have used, but you made your point clear enough

Agata L. 11/09/2021 - 1:04 Sáng

Very good video, thanks


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